Anatomy and physiology of the heart

For this reason, in Figure 6. The thickness of the heart wall varies in different parts of the heart. As shown in Figure 6. The semilunar valves are smaller than the AV valves and do not have chordae tendineae to hold them in place.

The left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it throughout the body to supply oxygen and nutrients to body tissues.

The pulmonary and systemic circuits

Thus, during repolarization, a double layer is formed that is similar to that observed during depolarization. In this article, we will explain the structure of the heart, how it pumps blood around the body, and the electrical system that controls it. Location of the heart in the mediastinum.

During diastole, the cardiac muscle cells relax to allow the chamber to fill with blood. During this phase, the AV valves open to allow blood to flow freely into the ventricles while the semilunar valves close to prevent the regurgitation of blood from the great arteries into the ventricles.


The cardiac muscles of the atria repolarize and enter the state of diastole during this phase. The epicardium is the outermost layer of the heart wall and is just another name for the visceral layer of the pericardium. It is a white sheet of endothelium squamous epithelium resting on a connective tissue layer.

The endocardium is very smooth and is responsible for keeping blood from sticking to the inside of the heart and forming potentially deadly blood clots.

The AV bundle is a strand of conductive tissue that runs through the interatrial septum and into the interventricular septum. In fact, if activation occupies 1 mm, then recovery occupies mm, a relationship that could only be suggested in Figure 6. The equation used to find cardiac output is: It next passes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricles, and from there is pumped through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery.

Blood Flow through the Heart Deoxygenated blood returning from the body first enters the heart from the superior and inferior vena cava. The superficial epicardium is the visceral layer of the serous pericardium.

The effective pumping action of the heart requires that there be a precise coordination of the myocardial contractions millions of cellsand this is accomplished via the conduction system of the heart see Fig.

Here, we explain how this amazing organ carries out this vital work. The cardiac valves passively open and close in response to the direction of the pressure gradient across them. The muscles of the heart need to receive oxygenated blood, too.May 07,  · A Doctor walks you through an animated video about the amazing human heart.

Heart Anatomy and Physiology; Cardiovascular Anatomy & Physiology Please purchase the course before starting the lesson. An important aspect of properly performing ACLS is having a strong understanding of normal cardiac anatomy and physiology.

In this article, we outline the basic anatomy of the heart, the types of cells and tissues involved, and how your heartbeat is generated. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART Location of the Heart The heart is located in the chest between the lungs behind the.

The heart lies in the center of the thoracic cavity (see also web Anatomy Tutorial section) and is suspended by its attachment to the great vessels within a fibrous sac known as the pericardium; note that humans have relatively thick walled pericardiums compared to those of the commonly studied large mammalian cardiovascular models (i.e., dog, pig.

One of the basic concepts in anatomy and physiology is the idea of organization. Levels of structural organization in the Heart Anatomy: chambers, valves and vessels.

Anatomy and physiology of the heart
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