The clinical signs of EPM can be quite varied. Usually, a horse contracts Sarcocystis by ingesting contaminated opossum feces that have been deposited in water, feed, hay and pasture areas.
Opossums are infected by eating sarcocyst-containing muscle tissue from an infected intermediate prey host and, after a brief prepatent period probably 2—4 wkinfectious sporocysts are passed in the feces.
Radiographs may be taken to rule out other possible diseases. Signs of this disease are similar to those associated with other spinal cord disease disease and severity can range from mild to severe. Incoordination and weakness which worsens when going up or down slopes or when head is elevated.
The exposure can occur through grazing or eating contaminated feed or drinking contaminated water. One of the greatest difficulties in diagnosing this disease is separating horses that have been exposed to the disease from those that truly have the disease.
Antioxidants, such as vitamin E may help promote the restoration of nervous tissue. The source of infective sporocysts is opossum feces, so it is prudent to prevent access of opossums to horse-feeding areas. Response to treatment is often variable, and treatment may be expensive.
Without treatment, EPM may progress to cause recumbency and death. The hardest part of dealing with this disease is establishing a definitive diagnosis. Paralysis of muscles of the eyes, face or mouth, evident by drooping eyes, ears or lips. Airway abnormalities, such as laryngeal hemiplegiasnoringor airway noise of undetermined origin may result from damage to the nerves which control the throat, although this is quite uncommon.
The Journal of Parasitology. Merozoites may be found extracellularly, especially in areas of necrosis. An early pioneer was J. In human medicine it has been approved as a broad spectrum anthelmintic and anti-viral drug.Lindsay, David A. David Lindsay Decoquinate,4-hydroxyquinalones and hydroxyquinalones and napthoquinones for the prevention and treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis caused by Sarcocystis neurona.
history diagnosis and treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis HISTORY DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF EQUINE PROTOZOAL MYELOENCEPHALITIS. Equine Protozoal Myeloencepalitis is a serious neurological disease in horses caused by a parasite protozoa thought to.
Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, Myelitis is the most common infectious cause of neurologic disease in horses. It is caused by one of two protozoal parasites (Sarcocystis neurona or Neospora hughesi), that attack the brain and/or spinal cord and damage the nerve tissue.
Sarcocystis neurona has been implicated in the disease for years. Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis: An Updated Consensus Statement with a Focus on Parasite Biology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention.
S.M. Reed, Another disease which should be considered as a differential diagnosis is equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Affected horses with early stages of disease typically have severe limb.
Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a master of disguise. This serious disease, which attacks the horse’s central nervous system, can be difficult to diagnose because its signs often mimic other health problems in the horse and signs can range from mild to severe.
Clinic symptoms of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis will mimic other neurological diseases in horses. Your veterinarian will first need to do a full physical examination.
EPM tends to affect one side of the horse more than the other side, so your veterinarian will be looking for any asymmetrical symptoms to help make a diagnosis.Download